endure - foreskin - hyperactivity - interventions - neonates - prevalence - ritual
Undergoing the ritual, in which the ________ or prepuce of the male penis is surgically removed, especially increased risk for infantile autism before the age of five, according to the results of a ________ study involving over 340,000 boys in Denmark from 1994 through 2013.
All of the subjects were born between 1994 and 2003 and followed through the age of nine, and during the course of the study, nearly 5,000 cases of ASD were ________. The study discovered that, regardless of their ________ background, circumcised boys could be at greater risk of developing the condition.
“Our investigation was prompted by the combination of recent animal findings linking a single painful injury to lifelong ________ in stress response and a study showing a strong, positive correlation between a country's neonatal male circumcision rate and its ________ of ASD in boys,” lead investigator Morten Frisch, a professor in the Department of Epidemiology Research at Statens Serum Institut in Copenhagen, explained in a statement.
Frisch, who is also ________ with the Center for Sexology Research at Aalborg University, and co-author Jacob Simonsen also discovered that circumcision was linked to an increased risk of ________ disorder among circumcised boys in non-Muslim families.
While these days, it is considered unacceptable medical practice to perform a circumcision without proper pain relief, none of the most common ________ used to reduce such pain is capable of completely eliminating it, the study authors said. Some boys, they add, will ________ extremely painful circumcisions – especially those who are very young.
Painful experiences in ________has previously been linked to long-term changes in pain perception in animal and human studies, the researchers explained. This characteristic is also frequently ________ in children who have been diagnosed with ASD.