by Brett Smith
A new study published in the journal Nature Genetics has found that mothers without_______of autism may pass on genetic _______ factors for the developmental condition to their sons.
The study included genetic information from nearly 2,400 children with autism and by examining families with one child with autism and one or more children _______ of the condition, the scientists gathered new data on how various kinds of _______ impact autism risk.
The researchers said their genetic information was acquired from exome sequencing, which looks at just the protein-_______ parts of the genome.
"The ability to examine these two types of genetic _______ in exome sequencing data is the first step toward _______ a more complete genetic picture at an individual level in the context of autism," noted the study team, from the University of Washington and Baylor College of Medicine, in a statement.
Focusing on other mutations
Past research has focused on _______ mutations, or mutations that show up in the child but not in either parent. Some cases of autism can be _______ to these mutations, but not all.
Instead of focusing on de novo mutations, the study team focused on other kinds of mutations, including those _______ from the mother or father. In particular, they quantified the autism risk of passed down gene mutations that cut off the _______ of proteins. They were especially interested in those proteins that are generally _______ in the volunteers unaffected by autism.
The scientists learned that the effect was most powerful when they detected mutations _______ from mothers to sons. This observation suggests a female may harbor such mutations without _______ autism, but when the mutations are passed along to her male offspring, the boys are at risk of _______ the condition.
The study also supplied one of the most _______ genetic pictures of autism to date. The scientists were able to compare both small mutations of single base-pairs in DNA and larger _______ and duplications of the genome.
"These findings are a major _______ in understanding the genes that play a role in autism," said study author Raphael Bernier, associate professor of psychology and behavioral sciences at the University of Washington. "Knowing more about these genes will set the stage for _______ medicine by allowing for targeted treatments specific to an individual. This gives parents more _______ and information about their child's condition."
This homework is based from the book Understanding Autism